The “Energy Ladder”: What energy sources do people of different incomes rely on?

WHO (2018) – Fact Sheet – Household Air Pollution and Health

Junfeng (Jim) Zhang, Kirk R Smith (2003) – Indoor Air Pollution: A Global Health Problem, British Medical Bulletin, Volume 68, Number 1, December 2003, Pages 209–225, https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldg029

Pollutants encompass a wide range of different compounds, the most important being fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon and carbon monoxide.

WHO 2006) reports: “The burning of solid fuels produces extremely high levels of indoor air pollution: typical 24-hour PM10 levels in homes using biomass in Africa, Asia or Latin America range from 300 to 3,000 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3). Peaks during cooking can reach 10,000 µg/m3. By comparison, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has set the standard for annual average levels of PM10 in outdoor air at 50 µg/m3; the annual average PM10 limit agreed by the European Union is 40 µg/m3. –– WHO (2006) – Fuel for life: household energy and health. On line here.

Delhi is one of the cities with the worst air quality in recent years. Wikipedia has an overview of the measurements on their site Air quality in Delhi and daily air quality data for Delhi can be found here.

For a comparison of indoor air pollution levels from different energy sources, see Shupler, M., Hystad, P., Birch, A., Miller-Lionberg, D., Jeronimo, M., Arku, RE, Chu, YL, Mushtaha, M., Heenan, L., Rangarajan, S., Seron, P., Lanas, F., Cazor, F., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Camacho, PA, Perez, M ., Yeates, K., West, N., Ncube, T., … Brauer, M. (2020) – Measurements of household and personal exposure to air pollution from 120 communities in eight countries: Results from the PURE-AIR study. In The Planetary Health of the Lancet, 4(10), e451–e462. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30197-2

See Shupler, M., Hystad, P., Birch, A., Miller-Lionberg, D., Jeronimo, M., Arku, RE, Chu, YL, Mushtaha, M., Heenan, L., Rangarajan, S. , Seron, P., Lanas, F., Cazor, F., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Camacho, PA, Perez, M., Yeates, K., West, N., Ncube, T., … Brauer, M. (2020) – Measurements of household and personal exposure to air pollution from 120 communities in eight countries: Results of the PURE-AIR study. In The Planetary Health of the Lancet, 4(10), e451–e462. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30197-2

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